Plato and his Views

Plato argues that there is a difference between sense-perception and knowledge. Many of us assume that we know the world through our eyes. All we have to do is open our eyes and whatever is in front of us is real. When learning philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology. Plato a well-known philosopher … Read more

Free Will and Determinism

For centuries the argument of free will and determinism has been the ongoing great debate. Between a philosophical and scientific stance there have been many debates as to which notion upholds truth and abides by the laws of nature; determinism or free will. Free will is the concept that we as conscious human beings have … Read more

Socrates and Plato

Socrates and Plato used the Allegory Cave to explain the critical thinking skills of common society by explaining what the imagined reality is supposed to be like and what the actual truth is like the real world outside the cave. They believed life was like being in a cave and that’s what life was about … Read more

Walzt’s theory of realism

Known as one of the most influential theories within international relations, Realism attempts to address how states interact based upon the concepts of power and security. The primary interest within this theory is self-preservation, which claims that states only work to increase their own power relative to others. Developed by many theorists, realism’s long history … Read more


Utilitarianism is the theory that we should always try to maximize happiness. When it comes to Bernard Williams, he is considered one of the greatest critics of Utilitarianism. The first test case for the utilitarianism theory he covered was for George the Chemist. Geroge just got his Ph.D. in chemistry. He is finding it to … Read more

Nicomachean Ethics – Aristotle

Nicomachean Ethics is a book that was written by Aristotle where he explained his definition and standards of ethics. Moral virtue is something that Aristotle believed you learned through practices. He defines it as “a state of character concerned with choice, and choice is deliberate desire,” and “it is this that is concerned with passions … Read more

Explain how Aristotle’s ideas show him to be an ancient philosopher (i.e. in accordance with the ancient world view)

(including that the cosmos serve as a model for human conduct that encourage to seek goodness in life, which is one that Aristotle placed a huge emphasis on) Aristotle’s had a technological approach to goodness and the order of which things should be. He believed that everything had a purpose, and the purpose of everything … Read more

Cogito – Descartes

Descartes presents the Cogito as a means of proving his existence in the meditations. Following his three stages of doubt, Descartes has found himself in hyperbolic doubt, unable to find a single certain truth to build his beliefs upon, until he performs the Cogito in the second meditation. He uses this to argue for his … Read more

Belief behind Festivals

FESTIVAL In Malaysia, the main festival that Chinese culture celebrates is Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival. Chinese New Year is the best festival for Chinese culture, because it is a new year for them and it is a great opportunity for families gathering and enjoys the reunion dinner. Chinese culture will pray to their … Read more

Freedom of will

The problem of freedom of the will is one that tries to decipher the limits of human freedom. In trying to solve this problem, several questions come to light concerning how to properly designate praise and punishment as well as how to deal with the confusing feelings of guilt and remorse. The question itself is … Read more

Aristotle: Within the Living Thing

Throughout Aristotle’s De Anima, a theoretical relationship between soul and body is gradually developed. In this paper, I will explain how Aristotle characterizes this relationship, as well as the compatibility of his view with the concept of the separability of soul. In doing so, it is also necessary to adequately describe Aristotle’s definition of soul, … Read more


​Plato’s critique of a democratic republic is very apparent. In almost every one of his work he expresses what he thinks the right form of government, and a democratic republic is not very high on his list. One reason why he would not like a democracy is that it killed is friend and mentor, Socrates. … Read more


In class we discussed relativism. We primarily talked about life situations and how to apply relativism. Boghossian’s argument for relativism is a different perspective than what we have discussed previously in class. Boghossian’s argument stems from the three terms moral relativism, moral absolutism and moral nihilism. In all three of these terms Boghossian is able … Read more


The question somehow seems ticklish and behooves a thorough explication of most individual perception of essence being who have desire for/ to be in faith or less obvious feelings submerged in belief force of the conscious mind. In trying to know the mean by which it is done, and this reckoning would have to be … Read more

Underdevelopment and foreign aid

After the Second World War, development economics emerged with the aim of narrowing the gap between developed and underdeveloped through the implementation of foreign aid. While the impact of aid on economic growth has been well-documented, there has been increasing calls to look at the effectiveness beyond the economic growth criterion (Feeny, 2005). Since its … Read more

Natural Moral Law

Formally introduced by the 13th century philosopher Thomas Aquinas, Natural Moral Law (hereon NML) proposes that goodness can be achieved by discovering and acting upon what is natural. Everything has a purpose/telos, and by fulfilling this purpose, it is thought that goodness can be reached. Aquinas builds his argument upon the synderesis rule: “Good is … Read more

Legal status of non-Christians

How did conceptions of human nature influence the ways in which medieval canonists and theologians defined the legal status of non-Christians? Conceptions of human nature were ever-present in medieval discourse from the Summa theologiae of Thomas Aquinas to the canonistic commentaries of the school of Bologna. The legal, broadly understood here as the ordering of … Read more