Abstract: In modern days, transactions can vary from a huge transaction to microtransaction. But Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency doesn’t allow a microtransaction without any transaction fee. A new cyptocurrency called IOTA has no transaction fees which means IOTA can be used for micropayments. We can send IOTA to an address with no fees charged. Basically, … Read more


Crowdfunding is now a global phenomenon and has proven to be effective in different sectors of the market. It has become inter alia a mechanism to garner funds or a financing mechanism for start-ups and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). In India, however, crowdfunding is still at a nascent stage. There exists no legal … Read more

Critically assess the extent to which the personal income tax can be regarded as a good tax

Introduction Income is considered as the main indicator of tax paying ability. Since taxation is now focused on controlling economic conditions whilst keeping equal distribution of income, the primary concern of most countries’ governments is to have a pleasing income tax system. Progressive income tax structures are generally encouraged to best serve equity during the … Read more

Socially Responsible Investing

1. Introduction Wikipedia defines Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) as Socially responsible investing (SRI), also known as sustainable, socially conscious, “green” or ethical investing, is any investment strategy which seeks to consider both financial return and social good.[11] Simply put Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) is making investment decisions to achieve social and environmental returns without compromising … Read more

What is meant by a financial crisis?

“A situation in which the value of financial institutions or the value of their assets drops rapidly.” A financial crisis is often associated with a panic or a bank run that may collapse whole financial system of economy. The investors sell off assets or withdraw money from savings accounts with the expectation that the value … Read more

Asset pricing model capital

Currently, market analysts use the “Asset Pricing Model Capital” as the main instrument. However, given the distinctive characteristics of emerging markets, the analysis through this model can be inadequate and, therefore, be a factor that disrupts the proper functioning of the market: given that investor expectations are formed by observing the market with this model, … Read more

Islamic Finance and Its Impact on Customer Satisfaction

ABSTRACT Islamic finance has been fully grown systematically and in prominence. it\’s currently wide called a viable different to traditional, thought finance. However, this ascension has been performed per sharia law beneath the restricted convenience of risk management tools, the framework of governance and regulative standards with the Islamic banking or Islamic financial set-up and … Read more

Household dept

In United Kingdom(UK), in March 2012, total household debt stood at £1,518.5bn in today’s prices compared with £1,630.1bn in March 2017. So in the past five years household debt has increased by an inflation-adjusted rate of 7.3%. (Inman and Barr, 2018) As of December 2017 average household debt is 57,830 pound and this figure is … Read more

Financial Crisis

A financial crisis occurs when a panic or a fear of the panic affects the overall functioning of the financial system (Metrick and Geithner, 2015). This is marked by the failure of banks, and/or the sharp decrease in credit and trade, and/or the collapse of an exchange rate regime, etc., generating extreme disruption of these … Read more


INTRODUCTION   Contrarianism and being a contrarian is challenging because it requires patience, conviction, hard-work and being able to withstand the challenge of appearing to be wrong in the short term. Sir John Templeton’s quote define contrarianism as: “To buy when others are despondently selling and to sell when others are euphorically buying takes the … Read more

The concept of accountability in the public sector

The concept of accountability in the public sector stems from the use of delegated authorities where the supervisor holds the subordinate accountable, and this evolves into a principle of ‘democratic chain of delegation’ where citizens hold executives accountable (Strom, 2000). While the meaning of accountability has been broadened to normative and value-laden domains, its framework … Read more

Increasing AOW-age

According to the latest schedule, as approved by the Dutch Senate as of June 2015, the AOW-age will increase by three months each year in the period 2016-2018, and by 4 months in the period 2019-2021. This means the AOW-age will be 66 years by 2018 and 67 years by 2021. From 2022 onwards, a … Read more


FINANCIAL RETIREMENT PLANNING: A STUDY AMONG MALAYSIAN WORKING ADULTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Chapter one aims to introduce the overview of the research topic. This study to examine the determinants of financial retirement planning among Malaysian working adults. This chapter will discuss briefly on the research background, problem statement, research questions, research objectives, and … Read more

Mutual funds

INTRODUCTION: A Mutual Fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share a common financial goal. The money collected & invested by the fund manager in different types of securities depending upon the objective of the scheme. These could range from shares to debentures to money market instruments. The … Read more

Evaluting the Sources of Credit Risk in Commercial Banks of Nepal

Abstract The study was conducted to find out the significant differences between state-owned bank and private sector bank in the practice of measuring the sources of credit risk. This paper attempts to ascertain the perceptions of Nepalese bankers about the importance of identification practice of credit risk sources within the specific borrowers. The result of … Read more

UN – financial inclusion

.The United Nations General Assembly which is the main deliberative and policy making organ of the UN, on 25.09.2015 adopted a resolution for transforming the world by 2030 i.e. the Agenda for Sustainable Development as a plan of action towards eradicating poverty of all forms while recognizing the same to be the greatest global challenge. … Read more