Development in Criminiology

Over the past century the field of criminology has changed drastically, with ideas like intersectionality quickly becoming more dominant when attempting to explain crime and the driving forces behind it. Gender has become increasingly important in the quest to understand criminal statistics and the disparities between the sexes. Gendered behaviors influence even street level crimes … Read more

Criminality Existing with Humanity

Introduction Criminality has always existed together with humanity. With the development of technology, new methods of proving someone guilty derived, DNA research for example. Yet, even after centuries, the confession is still considered as ‘the Queen of Evidence’. Imagine a suspect being interrogated. There is a lot of evidence against him, and he seems nervous … Read more

Victim Surveys

Victim surveys are surveys in which people are asked about their experience in regards to being a victim of crime and whether the incident got recorded by the police. The surveys’ aim is to not only measure crime but discover more about the “reasons for the under-reporting of crime, the correlates of victimisation, the fear … Read more

Policing and digital technology

In policing, technological changes are driven by three related imperatives: to improve effectiveness and efficiency in work processes and service delivery, to meet the requirements of new forms of police organization management and accountability, and to satisfy external agencies demand for information. Police organizations, just like business organizations, have introduced information technology to further their … Read more

Whether crime moves in response to the law enforcement targeted operation

There are many discussions and argument for long time whether crime moves in response to the law enforcement targeted operation (Repetto, 1974; Hakim & Rengert, 1981; Barr & Pease, 1990).  However Eck (1993) and Hesseling (1994) argued that although the empirical evidence is often less convincing than the rhetoric.  There are arguments that due to … Read more

Displacement of crime

It has long been argued that crime moves in response to targeted law enforcement (Repetto, 1974; Hakim & Rengert, 1981; Barr & Pease, 1990), although the empirical evidence is often less convincing than the rhetoric (Eck, 1993; Hesseling, 1994).  There are arguments that due to the negative effects of the enforcement strategies that has actually … Read more

There is no single cause of Juvenile delinquency but there are many and varied causes

There is no single cause of Juvenile delinquency but there are many and varied causes. (i) Mobility The rapid growth of industrialization and urbanization has led to expansion of means to communication, travel facilities and propagations of views through press and platform. Migration of persons to new places where they are strangers offers them opportunity … Read more

Becoming an FBI agent

Growing up I always considered that I was going to be working in a hospital, always helping others. My mother was a nurse and my stepdad was a doctor, so I felt the need to follow in their tracks. In bad situations when someone was hurt, I was always the first to react. Never did … Read more

Imprisonment in Ireland

The perception of imprisonment in Ireland has changed over the years from being solely a form of punishment to a form of rehabilitation. There is no longer a view of prison being the only way to deter members of society from committing crime. Now, there is a better understanding of the multiple methods of both … Read more


“Cybercrime” combines the term “crime” with the root “cyber” from the word “cybernetic”, from the Greek, “kubernan”, which means to lead or govern. The “cyber” environment includes all forms of digital activities, regardless of whether they are conducted through networks and without borders. This extends the previous term “computer crime” to encompass crimes committed using … Read more


A blink into the future, and all crime is foreseen. The “precogs” within the Precrime Division use their predictive ability to arrest suspects prior to any harm. Although, Philip K. Dick’s novel, “Minority Report,” may seem far fetched, similar systems exist. One of which is Bruce Bueno de Mesquita’s Policon, a computer model that utilizes … Read more

Surveillance SPOT Programme

In an age where every facet of our lives is becoming increasingly public, it is crucial for us to understand domestic surveillance and how it pertains to modern society. At our fingertips, we hold more information than any previous generation (a wolf in sheep’s clothing perhaps). Our data is being collected and used to manipulate … Read more

Investigating And Prosecuting Cyber Crime

Brown, C. (2015). Investigating And Prosecuting Cyber Crime: Forensic Dependencies And Barriers To Justice. Nternational Journal Of Cyber Criminology, 9(1), 67-74. Doi:10.4135/9781446212127.N12   In this article, the author uses different cases to exemplify the barriers that are faced by law enforcement in order to bring to justice those who commit cyber crimes. As the numbers … Read more

Juvenile Crime in the US and India

OUTLINE: JUVENILE CRIME Juvenile Justice System US (Hinako) •law ◦basically it depends on the laws of each state. •court ◦all the states decide to have the special courts that only handle juvenile delinquencies •age ◦minimum age ◾In 1997, 22 states had provisions for transferring juveniles to criminal court which did not specify. ◾For those that … Read more

Female crime

“Children of offenders suffer ongoing trauma, loss and stress throughout arrest, trial, imprisonment and release.” This is the view of Tam Bailie (Scotland’s commissioner for children and young people) in 2014 when he was discussing how the lives of children whose mother’s go to prison change. Therefore, to an extent, Tam Bailie is right, female … Read more

DNA fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is the backbone of being able to secure a conviction of a guilty suspect and eliminate other possible suspects from being falsely convicted of a crime they did not commit. DNA fingerprinting is not only a modern advancement which shows that even before any technology arose humans were using their fingerprints to show … Read more

How to write a criminology essay

Criminology essays address various factors associated with crime i.e. its nature, victim, range of theories and other social theories in order to arrive at a conclusion that answers the question.

The below sections give you fundamental guidelines on how to write a criminology essay.

Before writing the criminology essay, it is advised to divide the work into following steps:

Step 1: Preparation

Prior to writing, it is necessary to understand the question by asking ourselves about the requirement. Recollect whatever information you know about the question and indentify relevant sources from where you can get additional information that can address the question appropriately. Criminological essays are more often related to types of crime or associated theories. So it is necessary to understand the question beforehand, consider the various parts of the questions and try to explain the inter-relationships among them. Compare the objects in questions, present an argument and make critical observations on how a particular question needs to be answered. For example, if the question is to analyse various criminological theories in respect to a particular crime, you are being asked to present an argument on available theories and find correlation to the crime in question. There are valuable resources on key essay terms published by the University of Manchester and it may be a useful resource before beginning the essay.

Step 2: Research

Analyzing the question is an important activity before beginning to write the essay. Once you have detailed analysis of the questions, you are aware of the terms that need to be researched, what sort of information will be required and what method should be used to collect the information which can form the basis of answering the question. Gathering information becomes easier when you know the exact term that needs to be researched. For instance, in the above example, various criminological theories need to be analysed in particular. ‘Criminological theories’ needs to be researched from various sources which brings us plenty of information. Well, sources for criminology research are numerous for e.g. ISI web of knowledge, BUBL link catalogue, Criminology research council, Institute of Criminology and many other agencies. Nevertheless, the internet provides links to websites where papers on criminology are published and are available for free as well as on subscription.

Step 3: Planning – Writing and Formatting

After thorough research is done on the topic and necessary information collected, the next step is to design a structure in such a way that the gathered information is grouped under various themes and organise the themes into a meaningful order. The information should be organised under different sub-heads so that it’s easy to use the information without confusion. Such arrangement will help you in deciding what you are going to say in the essay. This will form the introduction and will lay the basis for argument in the coming sections. The Introduction should demonstrate the understanding and importance of the research question and how the writer is going to present the answer. The next thing is to ‘say whatever you want to say’ about the topic in question and present a valid argument through critical analysis. Then note down every point from the resources, and whatever you intend to say in the introduction and body, which will finally conclude the answer providing befitting response to the question.

Formatting in essay writing is of paramount importance. There are certain institutions, universities and other agencies that set guidelines regarding margin, font size, style and the way of presentation. Nevertheless, it is necessary to ensure that essay is formatted using classic fonts like Times New Roman or Arial, sized at 10 or 12 with line spacing of 1.5 or double and that the margins are 1″ on all sides of the A4 paper.

Knowing how to write a criminology essay is not only about writing the actual essay. It is also about the content you use, and your use of spelling and grammar. Once you feel that paper has been completed, read through the paper so as to ensure that any missing content or unnecessary statements are deleted or added and to rectify spelling and grammatical errors.

Step 4: Plagiarism

Because you have to refer to various sources that include books, websites, articles, periodicals, etc, it is inevitable that we are going to use the information collected from these sources. It is necessary to acknowledge the rightful author whose information has been used through appropriate citation and referencing. This is necessary to avoid plagiarism which is a serious offence and continuous instances of plagiarism will result in failure and dismissal. Using a free tool such as javascript:; can be helpful to ensure you haven’t accidentally plagiarised.

Step 5: Referencing

There are guidelines that have been set by institutions like Modern Language Associations (MLA), American Psychological Associations (APA), Harvard, etc. which determine the style of in-text citations and referencing. Therefore, be sure to cite the sources and provide the full list of sources used in the referencing section. In text citation can be as follows:

Labeling theory is discussed by (Author, date)…

Similarly, this statement can be presented as: Author (date) mentioned labeling theory as…

For instance, if direct quotations are used in the text, it can be presented as:

Labeling theory is the work of…” (Author, Date, Page Nos).

All the sources mentioned in the text are required to be presented in the reference list on the final page like:

For Book

Last Name, Initial (year) Title of the Book, Ed. Place: Publisher’s Name

For Chapter in a book:

Last Name, Initial (Year) Title of the Chapter, In Initial (Ed) . Title of the Book, Place: Publisher’s Name

Journal Article:

Last Name, Initial (Year) Title of the Article Journal Title, Volume No., Page No.

We hope you liked reading our free ‘how to write a criminology essay’ guide.